I threw a few sites up for folks in need the other day, one of them being myself (lots of folks’ businesses were wrecked during the tsunami two months ago). From doing that I realized the Drupal 7 documentation on rpm-based systems is a bit lacking (especially in Japanese). There are a few reasons for this. For one thing, Drupal 6 is still what’s in the Fedora repositories (at least as of F15 — and its orphaned?!?). So the Fedora wiki has basic install instructions for 6, but not 7. The Fedora-ized version also places things in a symlinked area under /usr, which may be more secure, but it confuses new Drupal users about “how to get rid of the example.com/drupal/” problem under Apache. And… lastly, SELinux requires a few adjustments to let httpd and drupal to work well together. Most users’ reaction to the first sign of SELinux issues is to hurriedly turn it off… emphasis on the hurr in “hurriedly” there, because that is stupid.
Even a lot of professional web developers do this, which should drive home the point I’ve made elsewhere of web people != systems people (though systems people might be capable web developers). As of this writing Ubuntu doesn’t even field SELinux by default and their millions of users don’t get chewed up as easily as Windows folks do, but the majority use case for Ubuntu is not (and should not, imo) be server deployment. But why risk it when you have such a powerful security tool right in front of you? For the enterprise I just don’t find it prudent to abandon such a great and easy tool. That’s like choosing to not learn iptables — which some folks have also opted out of as well.
So, without further ado, here is the quick and dirty to get Drupal 7 working on a Fedora/CentOS/RHEL type OS with SELinux intact:
[Please note these instructions assume three things: 1) a completely fresh minimal install, 2) you have control of the server, and 3) you are able to execute commands as root or through sudo. Also note that I have removed foreign language setup from this, as I doubt anyone who reads my blog really needs Japanese but me.]
[root@localhost example.com]# yum install postgresql postgresql-server php-pgsql php-xml \ php-pear php-devel gcc zlib-devel libcurl-devel make wget httpd php-mbstring [root@localhost ~]# cd /var/www/html [root@localhost html]# wget http://ftp.drupal.org/files/projects/drupal-7.0.tar.gz [root@localhost html]# tar -zxf ./drupal-7.0.tar.gz [root@localhost html]# mv drupal-7.0 drupal7 [root@localhost html]# cd drupal7 [root@localhost drupal7]# pecl install pecl_http [root@localhost drupal7]# pecl install uploadprogress [root@localhost drupal7]# echo extension=http.so > /etc/php.d/php_http.ini [root@localhost drupal7]# echo extension=uploadprogress.so >> /etc/php.d/php_http.ini [root@localhost drupal7]# service postgresql initdb [root@localhost drupal7]# service postgresql start [root@localhost drupal7]# chkconfig postgresql on [root@localhost drupal7]# chkconfig httpd on [root@localhost drupal7]# setsebool -P httpd_can_network_connect_db=1 [root@localhost drupal7]# setsebool -P httpd_can_sendmail=1 [root@localhost drupal7]# setsebool -P httpd_unified=1 [root@localhost drupal7]# cp sites/default/default.settings.php sites/default/settings.php [root@localhost drupal7]# chmod 666 sites/default/settings.php [root@localhost drupal7]# su postgres bash-4.1$ createuser --pwprompt --encrypted --no-adduser --no-createdb drupal Enter password for new role: Enter it again: Shall the new role be allowed to create more new roles? (y/n) n bash-4.1$ createdb --encoding=UNICODE --owner=drupal drupaldb bash-4.1$ exit [root@localhost drupal7]# cp /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf.original [root@localhost drupal7]# vi /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf
Add the following line at about line 71 or so, just after the local all all ident line (check first, don’t blindly dump this in with sed because this could all be wrong if you’re running a different version of Postgres or reading this far in the future):
host drupaldb drupal 127.0.0.1/32 md5
Remove the Apache and OS identification tags on server-generated error messages (such as the default Apache ### error messages):
[root@localhost drupal7]# vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
Replace “ServerTokens OS” with “ServerTokens Prod”
Replace “ServerSignature On” with “ServerSignature Off”
And since I’m paranoid and use my servers only as servers (and prefer to send logs to a separate logging server), I also change “LogLevel Warn” to “LogLevel Info” and let my parsing scripts do the work of finding the important stuff. That makes forensics a lot easier later on down the road (though more compute intensive).
Add the following lines to your httpd.conf file if you are running multiple websites on a single server (on a single IP address that is hosting multiple domain names):
NameVirtualHost *:80 <VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin email@example.com DocumentRoot /var/www/html/drupal7 ServerName example.com ErrorLog logs/example.com-error_log </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost *:80> ServerName anothersite.example.com DocumentRoot /var/www/html/anothersite.example.com </VirtualHost>
If you are not running virtual servers, or if you are running them in /home/user/public_html or whatever, adjust the way the file is written.
Now input iptable rules necessary to open port 80 for web traffic from outside, and allow httpd to access Postgres:
[root@localhost drupal7]# iptables -vI INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT [root@localhost drupal7]# iptables -vI INPUT -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT
Now point a browser at the server and do your Drupal installation setup. Once you’re done there reset the permissions on sites/default/settings.php and remove the last iptables rule:
[root@localhost drupal7]# chmod 644 sites/default/settings.php [root@localhost drupal7]# iptables -vD INPUT -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 5353 -j ACCEPT
If everything went correctly you should be able to use Drupal 7 with SELinux in Enforcing mode, with your iptables intact aside from however you remote login for administration (SSH, if you use it, if you don’t, then close off port 22 and do chkconfig sshd off as well).
The next time you reboot you will notice you can still log in to your shell, but you can’t access the website with a browser. That is because the iptables rule fell off (they don’t persist unless you tell them do). Once everything works the way it should, commit the iptable rule that is letting port 80 stay open:
iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/iptables
And while we’re messing with security… let’s go ahead and turn off a php feature that the cracker wannabes have recently learned about: allow_url_fopen.
[root@localhost drupal7]# vi /etc/php.ini
Replace “allow_url_fopen On” with “allow_url_fopen Off”
It is very unlikely that you will need all_url_fopen to be active, as very few modules use it (there is a Drupal-sepecific alternative to this, so it seems). Of course, if your site breaks it would be good to check if you actually did need this, but otherwise I’d leave it turned off until things go wrong.
Now we need to restart Apache:
[root@localhost drupal7]# apachectl restart
Given that the biggest fans of tutorials such as these are the sort of folks who would never spend the time to research the meaning of all this themselves and given that you wouldn’t be reading this if you already knew how to do the above in the first place, I must remind you to head to your favorite search engine and do searches for things like “hardening sshd”, “hardening httpd”, “turning off root login”, “using public key encryption with sshd” and anything else that might strike your fancy (protip: read as much as you can about SELinux and iptables).