Lean on Your Database

Doing computations in the database is almost always the right answer. Writing your own database procedures instead of relying on an ORM framework is even better. These go hand in hand since ORMs don’t allow you enough control over your data schema to define calculations in the first place (most can’t even properly handle multi-column primary keys and instead invent meaningless integer ID for everything; this should tell you something). Many, maybe most (at least that I’ve met), web developers don’t even know what sort of calculations are available to be performed in the database because they’ve been taught, in an absolute vacuum of personal experience, that “SQL hard. Relational thinking hard. OOP good. Trust framework”. There is so much missing here.

Frameworks try to be “database agnostic”. This is fundamentally flawed thinking. This implies that the data layer is merely there for “persistence” and that the “persistence layer” can be whatever — all RDBMS systems “aren’t OO and therefore suck” and so any old database will do. If this is true then it follows that frameworks and applications should be designed to work against any database system and not delve too deeply into any specific feature sets — after all, the application functionality is the focus, not the data, right? This is exactly backwards.

Even forgetting that this condemns you to least-common-denominator data design, this is still exactly backwards. Let me put the right way on a line all by itself, because it just that important:

Data designs should strive to be application agnostic.

Data drives everything. Your functions are what you can change around easily, but your data schema is critical and represents everything about your system logic. If you show me a well-labeled data schema I can probably guess what you are trying to do, but if you show me just your functions and objects I’ll require either a code tour or a lot of familiarization time before getting anything serious done (that project documentation will be lacking is a truism not worth addressing here).

Consider that changing your app code is cake whereas changing your data schema is major project surgery. OOP has us so in a stupor that we think if we just get our objects right everything will be fine. It won’t. Ever. As long as you think that you’ll also believe other crap like that each object should map directly to a table. There are certain basic truths about certain types of data. It is striking that I can give a data requirement to two DBAs schooled on two different RDBMSes and ask for a normalized data model (let’s just say NF3 for argument) and get back two very similar looking schemas, but I can give a feature requirement to two Java programmers and get back radically different system designs.

This should tell us something. In fact, it screams the truth that data is a foundation from which you must work up toward the application code, not the other way around. The database layer is the most important place to make sound choices. The choice of database system itself should be based on project requirements, because that choice matters. Most critically, I’ll say it again here because it is so important and implies so much on contemplation: the database designs should strive to be application agnostic.

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